What is AI?

Although there is often lots of hype surrounding Artificial Intelligence (AI), once we strip away the marketing fluff, what is revealed is a rapidly developing technology that is already changing our lives. But to fully appreciate its potential, we need to understand what it is and what it is not!

Defining “intelligence” is tricky, but key attributes include logic, reasoning, conceptualization, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, planning, creativity, abstract thinking, and problem solving. From here we move onto the ideas of self, of sentience, and of being. Artificial Intelligence is therefore a machine which possesses one or many of these characteristics.

However, no matter how you define it, one of AI’s central aspects learning. For a machine to demonstrate any kind of intelligence it must be able to learn.

When most technology companies talk about AI, they are in fact talking about Machine Learning (ML) — the ability for machines to learn from past experiences to change the outcome of future decisions. Stanford University defines machine learning as “the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed.”

The science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed

In this context, past experiences are datasets of existing examples which can be used as training platforms. These datasets are varied and can be large, depending on the area of application. For example, a machine learning algorithm can be fed a large set of images about dogs, with the goal of teaching the machine to recognize different dog breeds.

Likewise, future decisions, refers to the the answer given by the machine when presented with data which it hasn’t previously encountered, but is of the same type as the training set. Using our dog breed example, the machine is presented with a previously unseen image of a Spaniel and the algorithm correctly identifies the dog as a Spaniel.

Training vs Inference

Machine Learning has two distinct phases: training and inference. Training generally takes a long time and can be resource heavy. Performing inference on new data is comparatively easy and is the essential technology behind computer vision, voice recognition, and language processing tasks.

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), also known as deep learning, are the most popular techniques used for Machine Learning today.

Neural Networks

Traditionally, computer programs are built using logical statements which test conditions (if, and, or, etc). But a DNN is different. It is built by training a network of neurons with data alone.

DNN design is complicated, but put simply, there are a set of weights (numbers) between the neurons in the network. Before the training process begins, weights are generally set to random small numbers. During training, the DNN will be shown many examples of inputs and outputs, and each example will help refine the weights to more precise values. The final weights represents what has really been learned by the DNN.

As a result you can then use the network to predict output data given input data with a certain degree of confidence.

Once a network is trained, it is basically a set of nodes, connections, and weights. At this point it is now a static model, one that can be used anywhere needed.

To perform inference on the now static model, you need lots of matrix multiplications and dot product operations. Since these are fundamental mathematical operations, they can be run on a CPU, GPU, or DSP, although the power efficiency may vary.

Cloud

Today, the majority of DNN training and inference happens in the cloud. For example, when you use voice recognition on your smartphone, your voice is recorded by the device and sent up to the cloud for processing on a Machine Learning server. Once the inference processing has occurred, a result is sent back to the smartphone.

The advantage of using the cloud is that the service provider can more easily update the neural network with better models; and deep, complex models can be run on dedicated hardware with less severe power and thermal constraints.

However there are several disadvantages to this approach including time lag, risk of privacy, reliability, and providing enough servers to meet demand.

On-device inference

There are arguments for running inference locally, say on a smartphone, rather than in the cloud. First of all it saves network bandwidth. As these technologies become more ubiquitous there will be a sharp spike in data sent back and forth to the cloud for AI tasks.

Second, it saves power — both on the phone and in the server room — since the phone is no longer using its mobile radios (Wi-Fi or 4G/5G) to send or receive data and a server isn’t being used to do the processing.

Inference done locally delivers quicker results

There is also the issue of latency. If the inference is done locally, then the results will be delivered quicker. Plus there are myriad privacy and security advantages to not having to send personal data up to the cloud.

While the cloud model has allowed ML to enter into the mainstream, the real power of ML will come from the distributed intelligence gained when local devices can work together with cloud servers.

Heterogeneous computing

Since DNN inference can be run on different types of processors (CPU, GPU, DSP, etc.), it is ideal for true heterogeneous computing. The fundamental element of heterogeneous computing is the idea that tasks can be performed on different types of hardware, and yield different performance and power efficiency.

For example, Qualcomm offers an Artificial Intelligent Engine (AI Engine) for its top- and mid-tier processors. The hardware, combined with the Qualcomm Neural Processing SDK and other software tools, can run different types of DNNs, in a heterogeneous manner. When presented with a Neural Network built using 8-bit integers (known as INT8 networks), the AI Engine can run that on either the CPU or for better energy efficiency on the DSP. However, if the model uses 16-bit and 32-bit floating point numbers (FP16 & FP32), then the GPU would be a better fit.

The possibilities for AI augmented smartphone experiences are limitless

The software side of the AI Engine is agnostic in that Qualcomm’s tools support all the popular frameworks like Tensorflow and Caffe2, interchange formats like ONNX, as well as Android Oreo’s built-in Neural Network API. On top of that there is a specialized library for running DNNs on the Hexagon DSP. This library takes advantage of the Hexagon Vector eXtensions (HVX) that exist in top and mid-tier Snapdragon processors.

The possibilities for smartphone and smart-home experiences augmented by AI are almost limitless. Improved visual intelligence, improved audio intelligence, and maybe most importantly, improved privacy since all this visual and audio data remains local.

But AI assistance isn’t just for smartphone and IoT devices. Some of the most interesting advances are in the auto industry. AI is revolutionizing the future of the car. The long- term goal is to offer high levels of autonomy, however that isn’t the only goal. Driver assistance and driver awareness monitoring are some of the fundamental steps towards full autonomy that will drastically increase safety on our roads. Plus, with the advent of better natural user interfaces the overall driving experience will be redefined.

Wrap-up

Regardless of how it is marketed, Artificial Intelligence is redefining our mobile computing experiences, our homes, our cities, our cars, the healthcare industry — just about everything you can think of. The ability for devices to perceive (visually and audibly), infer context, and anticipate our needs allows product creators to offer new and advanced capabilities.

Machine Learning is redefining our mobile computing experiences

With more of these capabilities running locally, rather than in the cloud, the next generation of AI augmented products will offer better response times and more reliability, while protecting our privacy.

 

 

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Free Online Courses with Certificates | Simpliv

Spring Boot Microservices with JPA

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This course is a practical course which explains how to realise a microservice infrastructure in order to realise a full-stack web application composed by a “framework-less” Single Page Application and two restful Spring Boot microservices interacting with each other and with two different databases thanks to the implementation of the JPA (Java Persistence Api).

You’ll have the basis to generate fastly a microservice infrastructure, to organise your application using different layers according to the “SOLID” principle and following the MVC pattern.

You will have the instrument to organise your communication protocols using simple and effective rules, to implement restful web services which communicate with Json Messages.

This is course has the same topic of the Italian course Sviluppo Web a Microservizi con Java Spring Boot e Ajax” so it can easily considered as its English version. The example developed is different but with the same topics: microservices, Spring Boot, JPA and Rest calls.

 

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Easy to Advanced Data Structures

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Data structures are amongst the most fundamental ingredients in the recipe for creating efficient algorithms and good software design. Knowledge of how to create and design good data structures is an essential skill required in becoming an exemplary programmer. This course will teach you how to master the fundamental ideas surrounding data structures.

Learn and master the most common data structures in this comprehensive course:

  • Static and dynamic arrays
  • Singly and doubly linked lists
  • Stacks
  • Queues
  • Heaps/Priority Queues
  • Binary Trees/Binary Search Trees
  • Union find/Disjoint Set
  • Hash tables
  • Fenwick trees
  • AVL trees

 

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Leverage the Power of Generations

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There are now 4 generations in the workplace and our assumptions of the generations is getting in the way of our work. Are you getting along with your team members?

Leverage the Power of Generations aims to generate discussions and open-mindedness that leads to innovative solutions between all age groups. This “generation” course truly applies to every audience and organisation to understand that everyone has something to learn and everyone has something to teach.

Through bite-sized lessons including videos (20 minutes), written material and exercises from your own toolkit, the course focuses on creating common bonds among generations and looking at our differences as assets that can create real change. It is how we choose to work together that determines our success for the future.

 

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Javascript Testing Selenium Automation Nightwatch js Nodejs

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We will go over of basics such as what is selenium and how it help automate the browser.

To complete Setup and Installation of Nightwatch js Testing framework and we will create Test plan and test case, we will manually test a real website and then take those test case and we will automate it.

As we build our framework we will see how page object model/pattern help us re-use our code and how scale our test cases with ease

Who is the target audience?

  • Manual QA, SDET,Developer, Devops and anyone Interested in Learning Automation Testing

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Quickbooks Online – Level 2 Bookkeeping

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Quickbooks Online Accounts course is about how to use Quickbooks Online based on the most popular functions which you as a Quickbooks Online operator needs to know how to use, in order to be proficient in using the online software.

The learning is structured in a practical way. You are given a practical scenario assignment. There are various tasks to complete. You are given the task to do and have a go at, and then the video answer is available. It is suggested that you:

  • Read the task
  • Watch the video
  • Have a go at it yourself on your own system
  • Rewatch the video (if necessary) – to reinforce the learning

You’ll learn how to set up a quickbooks system from scratch, how to enter opening balances, post customer invoices and credit notes, post supplier bills and credit notes, pay suppliers, petty cash, prepare a VAT return, reconcile the bank, post journals, run reports amongst over things.

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Easy to Advanced Data Structures

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Data structures are amongst the most fundamental ingredients in the recipe for creating efficient algorithms and good software design. Knowledge of how to create and design good data structures is an essential skill required in becoming an exemplary programmer. This course will teach you how to master the fundamental ideas surrounding data structures.

Learn and master the most common data structures in this comprehensive course:

  • Static and dynamic arrays
  • Singly and doubly linked lists
  • Stacks
  • Queues
  • Heaps/Priority Queues
  • Binary Trees/Binary Search Trees
  • Union find/Disjoint Set
  • Hash tables
  • Fenwick trees
  • AVL trees

 

Click here to learn

 

WordPress For Beginners – Set Up Your Website In 50 Minutes

WordPress For Beginners

Build your first site in 5 minutes, customize in 50. This course holds your hand while you create a stunning site.

Learn how to quickly and easily make a beautiful website using WordPress – all in under 50 minutes and without writing a line of code.

What if you could have your own website set up in less than 5 minutes? Finish it completely in 30 minutes? Without ever having set up a site before, and without writing any code? Good news, you can!

Who is this course right for?

If you’re thinking, “I want a website. I want it now. I don’t know how to code” then this course is a perfect match for you.

100% newbies, those who don’t know how to code, those who have never set up a site before, those who want a “create a website for dummies” course, and those who want to build a beautiful, professional website in under 50 minutes.

  • Do you want to set up a website but feel overwhelmed and want a simple, quick, step-by-step guide that holds your hand all the way through?
  • Do you want to set up a beautiful, customizable site, but don’t necessarily know how to code?
  • Have you never set up a site before?
  • If there was a course called “set up a website for dummies” or “set up a website for a complete newbie” you’d jump at the chance to take it?

If yes to any of the above, you are in the exact right place!

 

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Microsoft Project 2013: Training for Beginners (New)

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This tutorial for Microsoft Project 2013 covers all topics basic to advanced. Any Individual who is very new to this tool would be able to understand all the topics in a simple and easy language.

We have purposely kept short and less number of videos to give you clear understanding about the topic and to command this tool.

This course would be with you for lifetime. Happy Learning.

Who is the target audience?

  • All employees of organisations who engage in projects and who would benefit from having a detailed understanding of how projects are best planned, executed, monitored and controlled to ensure a successful outcome
  • Freshers looking for job, Student, Project Manager, Team Leader, Managers

 

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The Ultimate Photography Course For Beginners

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“You don’t take a photograph, you make it.” – Ansel Adams

Anyone can learn to make incredible photographs!

Hey there, this is Jellis Vaes a professional travel and adventure photographer and I am excited to have you here! If you are looking to master your photography, then you have landed at the right place. Together you and I are going on an adventure into the world of photography. Along this fun filled and inspirational journey you will come to master your camera. As well as learning all the essentials we will also dive into various composition techniques, the process of work flow and touch upon the basics of post processing to make your photos really look incredible.

This course is cut right down to the real essentials – the nuts and bolts of what you need to take your photos, and photography, to the next level. Everything is explained in a simple one on one conversation, using examples of my own photos, as well as illustrations to make it all very clear and straightforward. If at any point you do feel you need a little extra help however, I am always here for you. We are in this together and I will do my absolute best to assist you with any questions you may have, and with the course in general.

Having said all that, I hope you are ready, as I’ve got my camera in hands already. So pick up yours, and let’s get started!

An honest review and rating is always appreciated and will help me to make any necessary improvements for the course, as well helping to get more people involved so they too can benefit from the beauty of photography. Many thanks!

You can browse the class attachments for the illustrations that I specifically made for this course. Use them to act as a reminder on certain aspects of using your camera and for your photography.

Please note, these illustrations are my creations and do belong to me, any further publishing without my permission is not allowed.

 

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Excel with Business Blogging

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Are you ready to CONNECT WITH YOUR AUDIENCE and FULFILL YOUR BUSINESS GOALS?

Do you want to create deeper relationships with your customers to build brand loyalty?

You can in EXCEL WITH BUSINESS BLOGGING.

This course offers an effective way to IMPROVE YOUR BLOGGING ACTIVITIES via a STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS

You’ll FIND OUT WHY BLOGGING IS THE BEST MARKETING TOOL for your business, LEARN HOW TO PRODUCE COMPELLING CONTENT for your blog and DEVELOP THE SKILLS TO WRITE FOR AN ONLINE AUDIENCE.

The Excel with Business Blogging course PROVIDES you with:

AN OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS BLOGGING: Learn how blogging gives your brand a personality

CRITICAL WRITING TECHNIQUES: Find out how to get creative with your content

BLOGGING GUIDE: This guide acts as textbook for the course. It provides you with additional information and emphasizes important concepts

 

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Public Speaking: How to Give a Great Retirement Speech

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Imagine giving your retirement speech and every one of your colleagues feels as though you are personally speaking to them and thanking them in a meaningful way. Wouldn’t it be nice to end your career on a high note by giving a retirement speech where you hit all the right notes?

In this How to Give a Retirement Speech you will learn the following:

  • How to give a great retirement speech
  • How to plan stories for your speech
  • How to practice your speech on video
  • How to use the right amount of emotion and retain composure

This course is delivered primarily through spoken lecture. Because the skill you are learning is speaking related, it only makes sense that you learn through speaking.

The skill you will learn in this class is not primarily theoretical or academic. It is a skill that requires physical habits. That is why you will be asked to take part in numerous exercises where you record yourself speaking on video, and then watching yourself. Learning presentation skills is like learning how to ride a bicycle. You simply have to do it numerous times and work past the wobbling and falling off parts until you get it right.

 

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Eulogy: You Can Give a Great Eulogy For Your Loved One

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Imagine yourself giving a proper eulogy for your loved one. You relive the high lights of this person’s life. You take people on a journey celebrating his/her life. And you do it with the poise and dignity that such an occasion requires.

How to Give a Eulogy

In this “How to Give a Eulogy” course you will learn all the steps you need to take in order to deliver an effective eulogy for a departed loved one. Nobody looks forward to giving a eulogy, but it is an opportunity to spotlight what was great and what will be missed by a close family member or friend. A eulogy isn’t like a typical business speech or PowerPoint presentation. However, it is still a speech with an opportunity to make either a bad impress, no impression or a positive impression and to communicate good things about the person who has just died. This course will help you prepare for the eulogy using the least amount of time and causing the least stress.

TJ Walker is a widely respected presentation coach and has personally delivered eulogies.

 

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The Ceremonial Speech-Deliver an Excellent Ceremonial Speech

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Imagine yourself giving a ceremonial speech and you are the epitome of confidence, class and dignity. Wouldn’t it be great to know that your next ceremonial speech will be delivered without a hitch?

In this How to Deliver a Ceremonial Speech course, you will learn the following:

  • How to read an oath in front of people
  • How to control emotions on an emotional day
  • How to speak with confidence and dignity
  • How to rehearse the right way for the big day

This course is delivered primarily through spoken lecture. Because the skill you are learning is speaking related, it only makes sense that you learn through speaking.

The skill you will learn in this class is not primarily theoretical or academic. It is a skill that requires physical habits. That is why you will be asked to take part in numerous exercises where you record yourself speaking on video, and then watching yourself. Learning presentation skills is like learning how to ride a bicycle. You simply have to do it numerous times and work past the wobbling and falling off parts until you get it right.

This course contain numerous video lectures plus several bonus books for your training library.

Click here to learn

 

 

Free Course on Easy to Advanced Data Structures | Simpliv

Data structures are amongst the most fundamental ingredients in the recipe for creating efficient algorithms and good software design. Knowledge of how to create and design good data structures is an essential skill required in becoming an exemplary programmer. This course will teach you how to master the fundamental ideas surrounding data structures.

Advanced Data Structures 4

Learn and master the most common data structures in this comprehensive course:

  • Static and dynamic arrays
  • Singly and doubly linked lists
  • Stacks
  • Queues
  • Heaps/Priority Queues
  • Binary Trees/Binary Search Trees
  • Union find/Disjoint Set
  • Hash tables
  • Fenwick trees
  • AVL trees

Course contents

Advanced Data Structures 2

This course provides you with high quality animated videos explaining a multitude of data structures and how they are represented visually. You will learn how to code various data structures together with simple to follow step-by-step instructions. Every data structure presented will be accompanied by some working source code (in Java) to solidify your understanding of that particular data structure. I will also be posting various coding exercises and multiple choice questions to ensure that you get some hands on experience.

Who is the target audience?

  • Individuals hungry for new knowledge
  • Students who want a fundamental understanding of data structures
Basic knowledge
  • Basic computer science knowledge

Top 100 Networking Interview Questions & Answers | Simpliv

1) What is a Link?

A link refers to the connectivity between two devices. It includes the type of cables and protocols used in order for one device to be able to communicate with the other.

2) What are the layers of the OSI reference model?

There are 7 OSI layers: Physical Layer, Data Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport Layer, Session Layer, Presentation Layer and Application Layer.

3) What is backbone network?

A backbone network is a centralized infrastructure that is designed to distribute different routes and data to various networks. It also handles management of bandwidth and various channels.

Top 100 Networking Interview Questions & Answers1

4) What is a LAN?

LAN is short for Local Area Network. It refers to the connection between computers and other network devices that are located within a small physical location.

5) What is a node?

 

A node refers to a point or joint where a connection takes place. It can be computer or device that is part of a network. Two or more nodes are needed in order to form a network connection.

6) What are routers?

Routers can connect two or more network segments. These are intelligent network devices that store information in its routing table such as paths, hops and bottlenecks. With this info, they are able to determine the best path for data transfer. Routers operate at the OSI Network Layer.

7) What is point to point link?

It refers to a direct connection between two computers on a network. A point to point connection does not need any other network devices other than connecting a cable to the NIC cards of both computers.

8) What is anonymous FTP?

Anonymous FTP is a way of granting user access to files in public servers. Users that are allowed access to data in these servers do not need to identify themselves, but instead log in as an anonymous guest.

9) What is subnet mask?

A subnet mask is combined with an IP address in order to identify two parts: the extended network address and the host address. Like an IP address, a subnet mask is made up of 32 bits.

10) What is the maximum length allowed for a UTP cable?

A single segment of UTP cable has an allowable length of 90 to 100 meters. This limitation can be overcome by using repeaters and switches.

11) What is data encapsulation?

Top 100 Networking Interview Questions & Answers2

Data encapsulation is the process of breaking down information into smaller manageable chunks before it is transmitted across the network. It is also in this process that the source and destination addresses are attached into the headers, along with parity checks.

12) Describe Network Topology

Network Topology refers to the layout of a computer network. It shows how devices and cables are physically laid out, as well as how they connect to one another.

13) What is VPN?

VPN means Virtual Private Network, a technology that allows a secure tunnel to be created across a network such as the Internet. For example, VPNs allow you to establish a secure dial-up connection to a remote server.

14) Briefly describe NAT.

NAT is Network Address Translation. This is a protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a common network to share single connection to the Internet.

15) What is the job of the Network Layer under the OSI reference model?

The Network layer is responsible for data routing, packet switching and control of network congestion. Routers operate under this layer.

16) How does a network topology affect your decision in setting up a network?

Network topology dictates what media you must use to interconnect devices. It also serves as basis on what materials, connector and terminations that is applicable for the setup.

17) What is RIP?

RIP, short for Routing Information Protocol is used by routers to send data from one network to another. It efficiently manages routing data by broadcasting its routing table to all other routers within the network. It determines the network distance in units of hops.

18) What are different ways of securing a computer network?

There are several ways to do this. Install reliable and updated anti-virus program on all computers. Make sure firewalls are setup and configured properly. User authentication will also help a lot. All of these combined would make a highly secured network.

19) What is NIC?

NIC is short for Network Interface Card. This is a peripheral card that is attached to a PC in order to connect to a network. Every NIC has its own MAC address that identifies the PC on the network.

20) What is WAN?

WAN stands for Wide Area Network. It is an interconnection of computers and devices that are geographically dispersed. It connects networks that are located in different regions and countries.

21) What is the importance of the OSI Physical Layer?

The physical layer does the conversion from data bits to electrical signal, and vice versa. This is where network devices and cable types are considered and setup.

22) How many layers are there under TCP/IP?

There are four layers: the Network Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer and Application Layer.

23) What are proxy servers and how do they protect computer networks?

Proxy servers primarily prevent external users who identifying the IP addresses of an internal network. Without knowledge of the correct IP address, even the physical location of the network cannot be identified. Proxy servers can make a network virtually invisible to external users.

24) What is the function of the OSI Session Layer?

This layer provides the protocols and means for two devices on the network to communicate with each other by holding a session.  This includes setting up the session, managing information exchange during the session, and tear-down process upon termination of the session.

25) What is the importance of implementing a Fault Tolerance System? Are there limitations?

A fault tolerance system ensures continuous data availability. This is done by eliminating a single point of failure. However, this type of system would not be able to protect data in some cases, such as in accidental deletions.

26) What does 10Base-T mean?

The 10 refers to the data transfer rate, in this case is 10Mbps. The word Base refers to base band, as oppose to broad band. T means twisted pair, which is the cable used for that network.

27) What is a private IP address?

Private IP addresses are assigned for use on intranets. These addresses are used for internal networks and are not routable on external public networks. These ensures that no conflicts are present among internal networks while at the same time the same range of private IP addresses are reusable for multiple intranets since they do not “see” each other.

28) What is NOS?

NOS, or Network Operating System, is specialized software whose main task is to provide network connectivity to a computer in order for it to be able to communicate with other computers and connected devices.

29) What is DoS?

DoS, or Denial-of-Service attack, is an attempt to prevent users from being able to access the internet or any other network services. Such attacks may come in different forms and are done by a group of perpetuators. One common method of doing this is to overload the system server so it cannot anymore process legitimate traffic and will be forced to reset.

30) What is OSI and what role does it play in computer networks?

OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) serves as a reference model for data communication. It is made up of 7 layers, with each layer defining a particular aspect on how network devices connect and communicate with one another. One layer may deal with the physical media used, while another layer dictates how data is actually transmitted across the network.

31) What is the purpose of cables being shielded and having twisted pairs?

The main purpose of this is to prevent crosstalk. Crosstalks are electromagnetic interferences or noise that can affect data being transmitted across cables.

32) What is the advantage of address sharing?

By using address translation instead of routing, address sharing provides an inherent security benefit. That’s because host PCs on the Internet can only see the public IP address of the external interface on the computer that provides address translation and not the private IP addresses on the internal network.

33) What are MAC addresses?

MAC, or Media Access Control, uniquely identifies a device on the network. It is also known as physical address or Ethernet address. A MAC address is made up of 6-byte parts.

34) What is the equivalent layer or layers of the TCP/IP Application layer in terms of OSI reference model?

The TCP/IP Application layer actually has three counterparts on the OSI model: the Session layer, Presentation Layer and Application Layer.

35) How can you identify the IP class of a given IP address?

By looking at the first octet of any given IP address, you can identify whether it’s Class A, B or C. If the first octet begins with a 0 bit, that address is Class A. If it begins with bits 10 then that address is a Class B address. If it begins with 110, then it’s a Class C network.

36) What is the main purpose of OSPF?

OSPF, or Open Shortest Path First, is a link-state routing protocol that uses routing tables to determine the best possible path for data exchange.

37) What are firewalls?

Firewalls serve to protect an internal network from external attacks. These external threats can be hackers who want to steal data or computer viruses that can wipe out data in an instant. It also prevents other users from external networks from gaining access to the private network.

38) Describe star topology

Star topology consists of a central hub that connects to nodes. This is one of the easiest to setup and maintain.

39) What are gateways?

Gateways provide connectivity between two or more network segments. It is usually a computer that runs the gateway software and provides translation services. This translation is a key in allowing different systems to communicate on the network.

40) What is the disadvantage of a star topology?

One major disadvantage of star topology is that once the central hub or switch get damaged, the entire network becomes unusable.

41) What is SLIP?

SLIP, or Serial Line Interface Protocol, is actually an old protocol developed during the early UNIX days. This is one of the protocols that are used for remote access.

42) Give some examples of private network addresses.

10.0.0.0 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0
172.16.0.0 with subnet mask of 255.240.0.0
192.168.0.0 with subnet mask of 255.255.0.0

43) What is tracert?

Tracert is a Windows utility program that can used to trace the route taken by data from the router to the destination network. It also shows the number of hops taken during the entire transmission route.

44) What are the functions of a network administrator?

A network administrator has many responsibilities that can be summarize into 3 key functions: installation of a network, configuration of network settings, and maintenance/troubleshooting of networks.

45) Describe at one disadvantage of a peer to peer network.

When you are accessing the resources that are shared by one of the workstations on the network, that workstation takes a performance hit.

46) What is Hybrid Network?

A hybrid network is a network setup that makes use of both client-server and peer-to-peer architecture.

47) What is DHCP?

DHCP is short for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Its main task is to automatically assign an IP address to devices across the network. It first checks for the next available address not yet taken by any device, then assigns this to a network device.

48) What is the main job of the ARP?

The main task of ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is to map a known IP address to a MAC layer address.

49) What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP is short for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. This is a set of protocol layers that is designed to make data exchange possible on different types of computer networks, also known as heterogeneous network.

50) How can you manage a network using a router?

Routers have built in console that lets you configure different settings, like security and data logging. You can assign restrictions to computers, such as what resources it is allowed access, or what particular time of the day they can browse the internet. You can even put restrictions on what websites are not viewable across the entire network.

51) What protocol can be applied when you want to transfer files between different platforms, such between UNIX systems and Windows servers?

Use FTP (File Transfer Protocol) for file transfers between such different servers. This is possible because FTP is platform independent.

52) What is the use of a default gateway?

Default gateways provide means for the local networks to connect to the external network. The default gateway for connecting to the external network is usually the address of the external router port.

53) One way of securing a network is through the use of passwords. What can be considered as good passwords?

Good passwords are made up of not just letters, but by combining letters and numbers. A password that combines uppercase and lowercase letters is favorable than one that uses all upper case or all lower case letters. Passwords must be not words that can easily be guessed by hackers, such as dates, names, favorites, etc. Longer passwords are also better than short ones.

54) What is the proper termination rate for UTP cables?

The proper termination for unshielded twisted pair network cable is 100 ohms.

55) What is netstat?

Netstat is a command line utility program. It provides useful information about the current TCP/IP settings of a connection.

56) What is the number of network IDs in a Class C network?

For a Class C network, the number of usable Network ID bits is 21. The number of possible network IDs is 2 raised to 21 or 2,097,152. The number of host IDs per network ID is 2 raised to 8 minus 2, or 254.

57) What happens when you use cables longer than the prescribed length?

Cables that are too long would result in signal loss. This means that data transmission and reception would be affected, because the signal degrades over length.

58) What common software problems can lead to network defects?

Software related problems can be any or a combination of the following:
– client server problems
– application conflicts
– error in configuration
– protocol mismatch
– security issues
– user policy and rights issues

59) What is ICMP?

ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol. It provides messaging and communication for protocols within the TCP/IP stack. This is also the protocol that manages error messages that are used by network tools such as PING.

60) What is Ping?

Ping is a utility program that allows you to check connectivity between network devices on the network. You can ping a device by using its IP address or device name, such as a computer name.

61) What is peer to peer?

Peer to peer are networks that does not reply on a server. All PCs on this network act as individual workstations.

62) What is DNS?

DNS is Domain Name System. The main function of this network service is to provide host names to TCP/IP address resolution.

63) What advantages does fiber optics have over other media?

One major advantage of fiber optics is that is it less susceptible to electrical interference. It also supports higher bandwidth, meaning more data can be transmitted and received. Signal degrading is also very minimal over long distances.

64) What is the difference between a hub and a switch?

A hub acts as a multiport repeater. However, as more and more devices connect to it, it would not be able to efficiently manage the volume of traffic that passes through it. A switch provides a better alternative that can improve the performance especially when high traffic volume is expected across all ports.

65) What are the different network protocols that are supported by Windows RRAS services?

There are three main network protocols supported: NetBEUI, TCP/IP, and IPX.

66) What are the maximum networks and hosts in a class A, B and C network?

For Class A, there are 126 possible networks and 16,777,214 hosts
For Class B, there are 16,384 possible networks and 65,534 hosts
For Class C, there are 2,097,152 possible networks and 254 hosts

67) What is the standard color sequence of a straight-through cable?

orange/white, orange, green/white, blue, blue/white, green, brown/white, brown.

68) What protocols fall under the Application layer of the TCP/IP stack?

The following are the protocols under TCP/IP Application layer: FTP, TFTP, Telnet and SMTP.

69) You need to connect two computers for file sharing. Is it possible to do this without using a hub or router?

Yes, you can connect two computers together using only one cable. A crossover type cable can be use in this scenario. In this setup, the data transmit pin of one cable is connected to the data receive pin of the other cable, and vice versa.

70) What is ipconfig?

Ipconfig is a utility program that is commonly used to identify the addresses information of a computer on a network. It can show the physical address as well as the IP address.

71) What is the difference between a straight-through and crossover cable?

A straight-through cable is used to connect computers to a switch, hub or router. A crossover cable is used to connect two similar devices together, such as a PC to PC or Hub to hub.

72) What is client/server?

Client/server is a type of network wherein one or more computers act as servers. Servers provide a centralized repository of resources such as printers and files. Clients refers to workstation that access the server.

73) Describe networking.

Networking refers to the inter connection between computers and peripherals for data communication. Networking can be done using wired cabling or through wireless link.

74) When you move the NIC cards from one PC to another PC, does the MAC address gets transferred as well?

Yes, that’s because MAC addresses are hard-wired into the NIC circuitry, not the PC. This also means that a PC can have a different MAC address when the NIC card was replace by another one.

75) Explain clustering support

Clustering support refers to the ability of a network operating system to connect multiple servers in a fault-tolerant group. The main purpose of this is the in the event that one server fails, all processing will continue on with the next server in the cluster.

76) In a network that contains two servers and twenty workstations, where is the best place to install an Anti-virus program?

An anti-virus program must be installed on all servers and workstations to ensure protection. That’s because individual users can access any workstation and introduce a computer virus when plugging in their removable hard drives or flash drives.

77) Describe Ethernet.

Ethernet is one of the popular networking technologies used these days. It was developed during the early 1970s and is based on specifications as stated in the IEEE. Ethernet is used in local area networks.

78) What are some drawbacks of implementing a ring topology?

In case one workstation on the network suffers a malfunction, it can bring down the entire network. Another drawback is that when there are adjustments and reconfigurations needed to be performed on a particular part of the network, the entire network has to be temporarily brought down as well.

79) What is the difference between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA?

CSMA/CD, or Collision Detect, retransmits data frames whenever a collision occurred. CSMA/CA, or Collision Avoidance, will first broadcast intent to send prior to data transmission.

80) What is SMTP?

SMTP is short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol deals with all Internal mail, and provides the necessary mail delivery services on the TCP/IP protocol stack.

81) What is multicast routing?

Multicast routing is a targeted form of broadcasting that sends message to a selected group of user, instead of sending it to all users on a subnet.

82) What is the importance of Encryption on a network?

Encryption is the process of translating information into a code that is unreadable by the user. It is then translated back or decrypted back to its normal readable format using a secret key or password. Encryption help ensure that information that is intercepted halfway would remain unreadable because the user has to have the correct password or key for it.

83) How are IP addresses arranged and displayed?

IP addresses are displayed as a series of four decimal numbers that are separated by period or dots. Another term for this arrangement is the dotted decimal format. An example is 192.168.101.2

84) Explain the importance of authentication.

Authentication is the process of verifying a user’s credentials before he can log into the network. It is normally performed using a username and password. This provides a secure means of limiting the access from unwanted intruders on the network.

85) What do mean by tunnel mode?

This is a mode of data exchange wherein two communicating computers do not use IPSec themselves. Instead, the gateway that is connecting their LANs to the transit network creates a virtual tunnel that uses the IPSec protocol to secure all communication that passes through it.

86) What are the different technologies involved in establishing WAN links?

Analog connections – using conventional telephone lines; Digital connections – using digital-grade telephone lines; switched connections – using multiple sets of links between sender and receiver to move data.

87) What is one advantage of mesh topology?

In the event that one link fails, there will always be another available. Mesh topology is actually one of the most fault-tolerant network topology.

88) When troubleshooting computer network problems, what common hardware-related problems can occur?

A large percentage of a network is made up of hardware. Problems in these areas can range from malfunctioning hard drives, broken NICs and even hardware startups. Incorrectly hardware configuration is also one of those culprits to look into.

89) What can be done to fix signal attenuation problems?

A common way of dealing with such a problem is to use repeaters and hub, because it will help regenerate the signal and therefore prevent signal loss. Checking if cables are properly terminated is also a must.

90) How does dynamic host configuration protocol aid in network administration?

Instead of having to visit each client computer to configure a static IP address, the network administrator can apply dynamic host configuration protocol to create a pool of IP addresses known as scopes that can be dynamically assigned to clients.

91) Explain profile in terms of networking concept?

Profiles are the configuration settings made for each user. A profile may be created that puts a user in a group, for example.

92) What is sneakernet?

Sneakernet is believed to be the earliest form of networking wherein data is physically transported using removable media, such as disk, tapes.

93) What is the role of IEEE in computer networking?

IEEE, or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is an organization composed of engineers that issues and manages standards for electrical and electronic devices. This includes networking devices, network interfaces, cablings and connectors.

94) What protocols fall under the TCP/IP Internet Layer?

There are 4 protocols that are being managed by this layer. These are ICMP, IGMP, IP and ARP.

95) When it comes to networking, what are rights?

Rights refer to the authorized permission to perform specific actions on the network. Each user on the network can be assigned individual rights, depending on what must be allowed for that user.

96) What is one basic requirement for establishing VLANs?

A VLAN is required because at switch level there is only one broadcast domain, it means whenever new user is connected to switch this information is spread throughout the network. VLAN on switch helps to create separate broadcast domain at  switch level. It is used for security purpose.

97) What is IPv6?

IPv6 , or Internet Protocol version 6, was developed to replace IPv4. At present, IPv4 is being used to control internet traffic, butis expected to get saturated in the near future. IPv6 was designed to overcome this limitation.

98) What is RSA algorithm?

RSA is short for Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm. It is the most commonly used public key encryption algorithm in use today.

99) What is mesh topology?

Mesh topology is a setup wherein each device is connected directly to every other device on the network. Consequently, it requires that each device have at least two network connections.

100) what is the maximum segment length of a 100Base-FX network?

The maximum allowable length for a network segment using 100Base-FX is 412 meters. The maximum length for the entire network is 5 kilometers.

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10 Most Important Cyber Security Tips for Your Users


National Cyber Security Awareness Month
 was established to strengthen the weakest point of any security solution: humans. No matter how effective—or expensive—the security tools protecting your network are, there’s no way to predict the damage caused by a single careless user. The war against cyber criminals is fought each time a user decides to click an unfamiliar link or open an attachment—and just a single mistake could be the reason for massive data loss.

10 Most Important Cyber Security Tips for Your Users1

To help out IT security managers during this Cyber Security Awareness Month, we’ve compiled a list of things your users should be thinking about whenever they’re using the Internet. They’ve probably heard many or all of these tips before, but repetition doesn’t spoil the prayer. If you take security seriously, you’re already using Umbrella by OpenDNS to protect your network from malware, botnets, and other advanced threats. And if you’re smart, you know that there’s no substitute for educating your users. Share this list with your users, this month—and every month. Read our Top Ten Cyber Security Tips below:

  1. You Are A Target.

Realize that you are an attractive target to hackers. Don’t ever say “It won’t happen to me.

  1. Eight Characters Is Not Enough.

Practice good password management. Use a strong mix of characters, and don’t use the same password for multiple sites. Don’t share your password with others, don’t write it down, and definitely don’t write it on a post-it note attached to your monitor.

10 Most Important Cyber Security Tips for Your Users3
Hacker typing on a laptop
  1. Lock It Up.

Never leave your devices unattended. If you need to leave your computer, phone, or tablet for any length of time—no matter how short—lock it up so no one can use it while you’re gone. If you keep sensitive information on a flash drive or external hard drive, make sure to lock it up as well.

  1. Practice Safe Clicking.

Always be careful when clicking on attachments or links in email. If it’s unexpected or suspicious for any reason, don’t click on it. Double check the URL of the website the link takes you to: bad actors will often take advantage of spelling mistakes to direct you to a harmful domain. Think you can spot a phony website? Try our Phishing Quiz.

10 Most Important Cyber Security Tips for Your Users2

  1. Beware of Browsing.

Sensitive browsing, such as banking or shopping, should only be done on a device that belongs to you, on a network that you trust. Whether it’s a friend’s phone, a public computer, or a cafe’s free WiFi—your data could be copied or stolen.

  1. Back It Up.

Back up your data regularly, and make sure your anti-virus software is always up to date.

  1. Physical Cyber Safety.

Be conscientious of what you plug in to your computer. Malware can be spread through infected flash drives, external hard drives, and even smartphones.

  1. Share Less Sensitive Information.

Watch what you’re sharing on social networks. Criminals can befriend you and easily gain access to a shocking amount of information—where you go to school, where you work, when you’re on vacation—that could help them gain access to more valuable data.

  1. Cut Out The “Middle Man”.

Offline, be wary of social engineering, where someone attempts to gain information from you through manipulation. If someone calls or emails you asking for sensitive information, it’s okay to say no. You can always call the company directly to verify credentials before giving out any information.

  1. Stay on Top of Your Accounts.

Be sure to monitor your accounts for any suspicious activity. If you see something unfamiliar, it could be a sign that you’ve been compromised.

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Which is Best for Web Application Development—Dot Net, PHP, Python, Ruby, or Java

When we talk about the web application development technology, web browsers are flashing in our minds at very first moment. It is because web browsers can talk in terms of HTTP or web-sockets with the Internet.

Web Application Development

Supports of Web Browsers

Moreover, web browser technologies are growing rapidly and expanding its supports for new programming languages that we never think of it. Mobile web browsers are behaving differently, and many web services work on mobile platforms with low-level native web browsers like WebView and APIs to give user interface.
The mobile web is hardly depending on de-facto standard desktop web technologies and leave enough room for diversity in web development technologies and frameworks.

Emerging Web Application Development Technologies

Therefore, we cannot rely on traditional Webs Application Development technologies such as PHP and Java, as server-side scripting languages, Ruby, and Python as standard web programming platforms, and .NET as emerging open source from a large proprietary software developer community of Microsoft.

Web Application Development3
We have to think of emerging scripting languages and frameworks such as JavaScript as full-fledged front-end and backend script, jQuery as a substitute of JavaScript in mobile web programming, Scala against Ruby, Elixir with Phoenix framework, Clojure with Datomic database, Haskel for serious functional programming, and Rust as a good alternative to it.
Node.js, Angular.js, Go, Dart, etc. are few names, which are gaining ground in the list of web development technologies. Therefore, sticking with one or two Web Application Development technologies for varying nature, size, and types of projects seems fatal attitude for the web programmers.

Particularly, for those programmers who have to traverse deep ocean of job market and career development in the stiffly competitive world of developers.
However, due to space constraints, we may discuss the traditional and standard web development technologies such as

  • Dot Net
  • PHP
  • Python
  • Ruby
  • Java

All come with their pros and cons and appropriateness in modern contexts, particularly where mobile web is going to dominate, and some new other hardware technologies may wait to arrive on the Web-o-Sphere.

PHP Web Application Development

Hypertext Pre-Processor or PHP is a server-side scripting language developed with the intention to create powerful dynamic and interactive websites in the static website era.
It has rapidly gained momentum, and today nearly, 40% websites or web application in the world of the Internet is running with PHP in their source code. However, we can cite numerous reasons behind such immense popularity, but few are distinguished such as:

  • It can easily embed into HTML code without requiring separate IDE
  • It is with short learning curve and flexible so need frameworks to do organized coding and a lot of frameworks available for little to large-scale programming
  • It is cross-platform and cross-browser compatible, as well as supports all existing web servers
  • It has universal database supports, so integration of any database is possible with PHP
  • It is open source and with huge open source community to support
  • It is at the core of various open source software with great popularity such as WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, Magento, and so on
  • Being the best PHP web application development service provider from India, we cater to hire php developers for different frameworks like Zend, Laravel, CakePHP and more we deliver responsive and cross-platform web applications using these framework with custom solutions.

ASP.NET Web Application Development

Web Application Developmenta

By nature, .NET is a framework, not a programming language. It is a product of the work of the proprietary giant Microsoft. It is supporting various Microsoft languages including VB & C#. The major part of .NET developer uses C# for desktop and mobile web development including cross-platform mobile applications.
Therefore, here we will discuss C# instead of ASP.NET framework. C# is a refined programming language with Object-Oriented Programming properties and follows MVC paradigm for rapid web application development.
ASP.NET offers flexibility and scalability that PHP can give only with various frameworks at different levels. C# has all good things in VB and C++ while support of Visual Studio with myriads of tools is great.

Visual Studio is shifting as open source and free platform gradually, and ASP.NET framework is decoupling from IIS to offer supports for a broad range of servers on the web.
PHP has various frameworks with the loyal community for each framework whereas .NET is a single framework with a comparatively huge community of developers. Therefore, you can collect a big team of desired skill sets easily for ASP.NET Web Application Development projects.

Python Web Application Development

Python in web developer community is considering as a general-purpose programming language for high-level designing and expressing concepts in a few lines of code. It has astounding readability, so if you know English, you can understand one-fourth of code written in Python.
Therefore, it is a good choice when a big team is working on a massive scale of the project, and a number of programmers have to read and code in a collaborative environment.
Python is supporting OOP and Functional Programming, as it is supporting multiple ways to create the structure and elements of programs for computing devices.
Its rapid prototyping and dynamic semantic capabilities are unbeatable so you can easily construct web applications by testing and importing vital functions.
Unfortunately, Python has a smaller community in comparison to PHP, NET and Java so find an expert developer is a tough job.

Ruby on Rails Web Application Development

Microservices Spring Boot Tutorial1

Ruby is a high-level programming language, which just like PHP can be embedded into HTML easily. It is open source and pure OOP language for web programming as well as other purposes too.
Technically, it offers encapsulation of data methods within objects while doing OOP and developers can use a super advanced string as well as text manipulation techniques.
It enables developers to write multi-threaded apps using simple API, and it can easily connect to various databases including MySQL, Oracle, Sybase, DB2, and so on.
The more curious thing for Ruby is that it allows programmers to write external libraries in Ruby or C class languages. It also provides a mechanism for powerful string handling and advanced array class.
Some useful features of Ruby include better security coding, flexible syntax, and debugger to create a quality web application.
It is straightforward and easy for fresher to learn and code due to its easy and clean syntax. Of course, enormous learning resources are plus point for its vast developer community and fans.
Ruby has known framework, and it is Rails so sometimes it refers as Ruby on Rails (ROR) among its lovers.

Searching for Ruby on Rails Developers? Hire dedicated Ruby on Rails Developers team with Addon Solutions and meet Meet the world’s top RoR Programmers with affordable rate.

Java Web Application Development

 

Java is a platform-agnostic programming language for web and desktop applications and now used in Android for mobile application development. It is a pure Object-oriented language with strict conventions and typing.
Java is highly preferred programming language for enterprises for big scale projects for the web, intranet as desktop usage, and in modern M2M, IoT, and LBS, as embedded programming language.
It is because it offers high-end security coding, performance designing, and concurrency programming. It brings productivity for developers and eases their life with scalability and interoperability whenever needed.
The best thing for Java is that it is treating as the standard language in universities and courses so finding a Java developer is quite easy and with different levels of skill sets.
Therefore, just like PHP and ASP.NET languages and frameworks, Java is futuristic and give ‘Spring’ and ‘Play’ like programmer friendly frameworks to do rapid Web Application Programming.

Get in touch with Professional Java application development & integration services by Addon Solutions for your all in one requirements with our top multiple skills java developers for hire.

Conclusion:

If you have small-scale projects, selecting a single programming technology is a good option, but with large-scale projects, we cannot restrict with one and should go with a mix of multiple web programming languages, frameworks, and databases.
In big projects, sometimes finding developers with single skill sets is tough and we have to compromise by including multiple languages to serve different purposes.
Therefore, developers should learn more than one Web Application Development languages, and clients should select the web development companies with a mix of skill sets available as development resources.
If you think Addon Solutions as your dependable web development partner, you can access web programmers with expertise in various traditional and modern web development languages.

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Future Technologies That Will Be Mainstream by 2020

Tech companies rang in the start of the new year by unveiling some of their ambitious plans for the coming months. Startups and multinational companies alike are beginning to feel the ripple effects of innovation in the industry, with technology becoming more intertwined in everyday lives each year.

As 2018 progresses, here are 5 future technologies you can expect to reach the public in the next couple of years.

1. The Internet of Things

The Internet of Things has long been talked about amongst tech insiders as the next big innovation in home technology. In recent years, IoT has begun carve a niche for itself in everyday life with the growing adoption of systems like Google’s Home and Amazon’s Alexa. These devices will continue to integrate more aspects of the home into one harmonious system by utilizing the internet, allowing a user to control anything from the air conditioning to their security via voice command and a small personal assistant.Apple has announced its plans to roll out the HomePod this year and Samsung is reportedly working on their Bixby technology in order to compete with the success of the Google and Amazon systems. You can expect that one of these devices will be simplifying life in your home and the homes around you by 2020.

2. Automation

While large-scale innovation in automation has traditionally been limited to the production side of society, the technology will have far reaching implications for consumers by 2020. Amazon’s automated grocery store, eliminating the need for cashiers, has been one of the first major tech triumphs of the year.

The store has proven itself successful as an efficient alternative for shoppers in its first location. The current cost of this technology, however, puts it out of the reach of pretty much any other storefront. As the technology continues to develop, consumers can expect that pressure sensors and cameras that automate pay and alleviate long lines in stores will be coming to groceries and pharmacies near you in the next couple of years.

3. Cryptocurrency

After Bitcoin’s meteoric price jump in 2017, major tech players have begun to take cryptocurrencies seriously. Along with major Initial Coin Offerings that have hit major news outlets like Etherium, smaller companies are developing Stablecoins that provide attempt to provide all the pros of cryptocurrency transactions without the price fluctuations that have plagued the system.

As these coins begin to work themselves out and exchanges even out the fluctuations in prices, expect these assets to be mainstream methods of payment by 2020.

4. Blockchain

Blockchain, the decentralized ledger that holds together cryptocurrencies, has applications reaching far beyond financial transactions. Companies have applied the technology to everything, from simplifying tracking and access to information in academia to interesting and amusing games that use complex algorithms to create unique experiences.

5. Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence, which once may have seemed like something out of a Sci-Fi novel, is seeing the light and applications of the technology are already being worked on. In particular, with the rise of the Internet of Things, Information Technology and Cybersecurity firms have begun to adopt artificial neural networks in order to monitor and prevent DDoS attacks.

In addition to its security applications, companies like Amazon and Google have begun to apply the technology to regular consumers in order to simplify shopping and searching experiences on the platforms. With all the current progress of AI technology, it is reasonable to expect that by the year 2020 the innovation will be deeply entrenched in both business and consumer activities.

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